Class 1, Question 7

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Class 1, Question 7

Post  Marc on Thu Jan 20, 2011 1:19 pm

7-What are the four types of languages based on their morpho-syntactic characteristics? Give an exampleof a language for each. Where does English fit in?

Marc

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Re: Class 1, Question 7

Post  Marc on Thu Jan 27, 2011 11:18 am

ISOLATING
An ideal isolating language has 1:1 correspondance between words and morphemes. Vietnamese is quite close to such an ideal isolating type.
Generally, in vietnamese one word consists of one morpheme. The term monosyllabic language is also used to refer to an isolating language.

AGGLUTINATING
words may consist of more than one morpheme, but the boundaries between them are clear-cut, and a morpheme has a reasonably invariant shape, so that identifying them in terms of their phonetic shape is also relatively straitforward.
Turkish nouns vary for number (sing. plur.) and six cases (nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, locative, ablative).

However, because turkish is an agglutinating language it is always possible to segment any given noun clearly into lexical stem, number affix and case affix.

FUSIONAL
no clear-cut boundary between morphemes: the expression of different categories within a word is fused together to give a single unsegmentable morph.
Russian distinguishes two numbers and six cases, and even fused affixes have variant shapes, because different affixes are used in different declension classes.
The German model represents a reduced fusional system in comparison with the Russian.

POLYSYNTHETIC or INCORPORATING
a fourth broatd morphological type. however while they have traditionally been lumped together, they do in fact involve different processes.

incorporation involves taking a number of lexical morphemes and constructing them into a single word Lighthouse. this gives relatively long words.
Chukchi (north siberian language)

polysynthetic languuages also permit the combination of a larg number of grammatical morphemes into a single word, often corresponding to a whole sentence of English.
Eskimo
However, in Eskimo there is only one lexical morpheme, so Eskimo is polysynthetic, not incorporating.

no language represents an ideal morphological type as it is in the nature of a language to change over time.

Marc

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Re: Class 1, Question 7

Post  Marc on Thu Jan 27, 2011 11:20 am

yet doug says I should search on the net on these features for more complete info.

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Re: Class 1, Question 7

Post  Sandie on Wed Feb 02, 2011 9:49 am

Hey Marc,
Can you write your references for this question ??

Sandie

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Re: Class 1, Question 7

Post  Marc on Thu Feb 03, 2011 12:41 am

hi, well it was in one of doug's books, the one chloe took, but I don't remember the name of the book, sorry.

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