Final question 7

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Final question 7

Post  Bi on Thu Apr 21, 2011 12:17 pm

7) In the Early Modern English period, the language continued its long road to standardisation. Describe how the language become more standardised in this time period? How did dictionaries evolve? When and where did the first English grammar books appear?

(156-157) Baugh and Cable(1993) pin point 4 different elements that played a special role in the standardization of the language. 
The protestant reformation helped people accept English in religious contexts.
The printing press
• Caxton introduced the printing press to Britain in 1476
• By 1500 over 35,000 books had been printed
• By 1640 over 20,000 titles available in English
• Brought in increase in the time people allotted to leisure reading.
• Fennell says it played a role in the standardization of spelling (books written with the same spelling for the same word in different dialects)
• Books became cheap and accessible
• English-language books sold better, helping English come to power.
• Once the language was set in print the conventions became fixed.
• Responsible of the lack of correspondence between sound and symbol in the English writing system.
 Access to education
 Increased communication
• William Wyclif’s campaign to accept English in religion during the protestant reformation assisted the establishment of English as the accepted form of communication in all fields.
 Social stratification

• English needed to establish a regular and uniform orthographical system, and to expand its vocabulary to meet the increased demands caused by the demise of Latin and by developments in science and new discoveries throughout the growing empire.
• 1582 Richard Mulcaster provided a list of 7,000 most common words in English (demonstrated consistency in spelling influencing later scolars)
• Johnson wrote a dictionary that illustrates the standards existing the the middle of the 18th century
The adventure of English
• English had to wait t’il the dawn of the seventeenth century, 1604, to get its own dictionary. 8 years before Italian and 35 years before French. 800 years after the first Arabic dictionary and 1000 years after the first Sanskrit dictionary in India.
• 1604 Robert Cawdrey The Table Alphabeticall.
• First word in the first dictionary “Abandon”
• 2543 words in this dictionary
• Recognition of the new status of the English language
• Intended for those who might not understand words found in scriptures, sermons and elsewhere.
• Not for scholars but for the general population
• By 1600 half of the population had a minimal education in reading and writing
(page 94)
• Henry V (like Alfred the Great) used English the unite the English population
• A key moment was his letters home from Agincourt ( a letter may seem a small thing)
• Henry’s letter can be seen as the final acceptance of the tongue of the land being used officially.
(page 98-99)
• A common language was needed and Chancery was well equipped to provide one.
• Twelve senior clerks known as the masters of Chancery + a second form of another 12 clerks.
• English governmental bureaucracy
• Hundreds of decisions had to be made as to what form of the word and which spelling to adopt.
• Not because languages are regularized that it meant that they were being simplified.
Sixteenth to eighteenth centuries
The first English grammar, Pamphlet for Grammar by William Bullokar, written with the seeming goal of demonstrating that English was quite as rule-bound as Latin, was published in 1586.[1] Bullokar's grammar was faithfully modeled on William Lily's Latin grammar, Rudimenta Grammatices (1534).[2] Lily's grammar was being used in schools in England at that time, having been "prescribed" for them in 1542 by Henry VIII.[1] Although Bullokar wrote his grammar in English and used a "reformed spelling system" of his own invention, many English grammars, for much of the century after Bullokar's effort, were to be written in Latin; this was especially so for books whose authors were aiming to be scholarly.[1] Christopher Cooper's Grammatica Linguæ Anglicanæ (1685) was the last English grammar written in Latin.[3]
The yoke of Latin grammar writing bore down oppressively on much of the early history of English grammars. Any attempt by one author to assert an independent grammatical rule for English was quickly followed by equal avowals by others of truth of the corresponding Latin-based equivalent.[4] Even as late as the early 19th century, Lindley Murray, the author of one of the most widely used grammars of the day, was having to cite "grammatical authorities" to bolster the claim that grammatical cases in English are different from those in Ancient Greek or Latin.[4]
The focus on tradition, however, belied the role that other social forces had already begun to play in the early seventeenth century. In particular, increasing commerce, and the social changes it wrought, created new impetus for grammar writing.[4] On the one hand, greater British role in international trade created demand for English grammars for speakers of other languages. Many such grammars were published in various European languages in the second half of the seventeenth century.[4] On the other hand, English grammars began to reach a wider audience within Britain itself. They spread beyond their erstwhile readership of "learned," privileged, adult males to other groups of native speakers such as women, merchants, tradesmen, and even schoolboys.[4] Consequently, by the early eighteenth century, many grammars, such as John Brightland's A Grammar of the English tongue (1711) and James Greenwood's Essay towards a practical English grammar, were targeting people without "Latin background," including the "fair sex" and children.[4]
If by the end of the seventeenth century English grammar writing had made a modest start, totaling 16 new grammars since Bullokar's Pamphlet of 115 years before, by the end of the eighteenth, the pace was positively brisk; 270 new titles were added during that century.[5] Both publishing and demand, moreover, would continue to mushroom. The first half of the nineteenth century would see the appearance of almost 900 new books on English grammar.[5] Showing little originality, most new books took the tack of claiming—as justification for their appearance—that the needs of their particular target audience were still unmet or that a particular "grammatical point" had not been treated adequately in the preexisting texts, or oftentimes both.[5] Texts that were both utilitarian and egalitarian were proliferating everywhere. Edward Shelley's The people's grammar; or English grammar without difficulties for 'the million' (1848), for example, was written for "the mechanic and hard-working youth, in their solitary struggles for the acquirement of knowledge."[5] Similarly, William Cobbett's popular mid-century book was titled, A Grammar of the English Language, In a Series of Letters: Intended for the Use of Schools and of Young Persons in General, but more especially for the use of Soldiers, Sailors, Apprentices, and Plough-Boys.
Eighteenth century prescriptive grammars
Robert Lowth, Bishop of Oxford and thereafter of London, scholar of Hebrew poetry, and for a short time professor of poetry at Oxford, was the first and the best known of the widely emulated grammarians of the 18th century. A self-effacing clergyman, he published his only work on English grammar, A Short Introduction to English Grammar, with critical notes, in 1762, without the author's name on the title page. His influence—extended through the works of his students Lindley Murray and William Cobbett—would last well into the late 19th century. He would also become, among prescriptive grammarians, the target of choice for the criticism meted out by later descriptivist linguists.
Lowth's chief aim, shared with that of most eighteenth century grammarians, was to present a standard English grammar that taught its readers to express themselves with "propriety" and to accurately evaluate constructions for correctness. Written in a spry and unpretentious style, the book contained a large number of worked examples, whose popularity, especially among the self-taught, made it a big commercial success. Lowth employed footnotes in a new way. He used them not merely to expand on the finer points, but also to offer a critique of errors. Consequently, the book offered a two-tier discourse: elementary statements of rules in the main text, and more nuanced analyses of errors in the footnotes. However, since the samples chosen for the error analysis included those from authors such as Alexander Pope, Jonathan Swift, and Joseph Addison, readers were sometimes discouraged by the immensity of the task before them.
Early Nineteenth century
It was during the nineteenth century that modern-language studies became systematized.[6] In the case of English, this happened first in continental Europe, where it was studied by historical and comparative linguists.[6] In 1832, Danish philologist, Rasmus Rask, published an English grammar, Engelsk Formlære, part of his extensive comparative studies in the grammars of Indo-European languages.[6] German philologist, Jacob Grimm, the elder of the Brothers Grimm, included English grammar in his monumental grammar of Germanic languages, Deutsche Grammatik (1822–1837).[6] German historical linguist Eduard Adolf Maetzner published his 1,700 page Englische Grammatik between 1860 and 1865; an English translation, An English grammar: methodical, analytical and historical appeared in 1874.[6] Contributing little new to the intrinsic scientific study of English grammar, these works nonetheless showed that English was being studied seriously by the first professional linguists.[6]
• 1586. William Bullokar: Bref Grammar for English.[10]
• 1594. Paul Greaves: Grammatica Anglicana.[11]
• 1617. Alexander Hume: Orthographie and Congruitie of the Britan Tongue.[11]
• 1619/1621. Alexander Gill: Logonomia Anglica.[11]
• 1634. Charles Butler: English Grammar.[12]
• 1640. Ben Jonson: The English Grammar.[13]
• 1646. Joshua Poole: The English Accidence.[12]
• 1653. John Wallis: Grammatica Linguæ Anglicanæ.[14]
• 1654. Jeremiah Wharton: The English Grammar.[14]
• 1662. James Howell: A New English Grammar.[14]
• 1669. John Newton: School Pastime for Young Children: or the Rudiments of Grammar.[14]
• 1669. John Milton: Accedence Commenc't Grammar (a Latin grammar written in English).[15]
• 1671. Thomas Lye: The Child's Delight.[16]
• 1685. Christopher Cooper: Grammatica Linguæ Anglicanæ.[16]
• 1688. Guy Miège: The English Grammar.[16]
• 1693. Joseph Aickin: The English grammar.[16]
• 1700. A. Lane: A Key to the Art of Letters.[16]
• 1762. Robert Lowth: A short introduction to English grammar: with critical notes.[17]
• 1763. John Ash: Grammatical institutes: or, An easy introduction to Dr. Lowth's English grammar.[18]
• 1765. William Ward: An Essay on English Grammar.[19]
• 1766. Samuel Johnson: A dictionary of the English Language...: to which is prefixed, a Grammar of the English Language.[20]
• 1772. Joseph Priestley: The Rudiments of English Grammar: Adapted to the Use of Schools.[21]
• 1795. Lindley Murray: English grammar: adapted to the different classes of learners.[22]
• 1804. Noah Webster: A Grammatical Institute of the English Language.[23]
• 1818. William Cobbett: A Grammar of the English Language, In a Series of Letters.[24]
• 1850. William Chauncey Fowler: English grammar: The English language in its elements and forms.[25]
• 1874 Eduard Adolf Maetzner, An English grammar: methodical, analytical, and historical. With a treatise on the orthography, prosody, inflections and syntax of the English tongue, and numerous authorities cited in order of historical development. (English translation of Englische Grammatik (1860–65)).[26]
• 1892/98. Henry Sweet: A New English Grammar, Logical and Historical (Part 1: Introduction, Phonology, and Accidence; Part 2: Syntax).[27]
• 1904–1929. H. Poutsma: A Grammar of Modern English (5 volumes).[28]
• 1909–1932. Etsko Kruisinga: A Handbook of Present-day English[29]
• 1909–1940. Otto Jespersen: A Modern English Grammar on Historical Principles.[30]
• 1945. R. W. Zandvoort: A Handbook of English Grammar.[31]
• 1952. Charles C. Fries: The Structure of English: An Introduction to the Construction of English Sentences.[32]
• 1984. M. A. K. Halliday: An Introduction to Functional Grammar.[33]
• 1985. Randolph Quirk, Sidney Greenbaum, Geoffrey Leech, and Jan Svartvik: A comprehensive grammar of the English language.[34]
• 1999. Douglas Biber, Stig Johansson, Geoffrey Leech, Susan Conrad, and Edward Finegan: Longman grammar of spoken and written English.[35]
• 2002. Rodney Huddleston and Geoffrey Pullum: The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language.[36]
• 2006. Ronald Carter and Michael McCarthy: The Cambridge Grammar of English.[37]
Millward, C.M., 1996, A Biography of the English Language, Hancourt Brace, page 305-306.

• Oxford English Dictionary dominates the history of dictionaries
• Began in 1857 Dictionary based on historical principles and to include every word that had appeared in the english language since 1000AD.
• First section issued in 1884 and the last one in 1928.
• Dictionary making in the US began shortly after the nation became independent.
• Noah Webster published the first americain dictionary. Did not follow the standards established in Johnson’s dictionary.
• When Webster died in 1843, George and Charles Merriam bought the publishing rights.
• In 1847 published the Merrian-Webster.


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